Heroes of Telemark

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As of 1990, there were 176 leukemia deaths among 50,1 13 survivors with significant exposures (>0.5Gy). S. policy of shielding the Israeli program has recently provoked new controversy, partly because of allegations that it played a role in the censure of a well-known national-laboratory arms researcher in July, after he published an article in which he acknowledged that Israel has nuclear arms. It has been argued [51] that if the megatonnage in nuclear arsenals were increased by ten or 100 times and used in war, the fallout would be sufficient to threaten the life of most people on earth.

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Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile

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Some fear that this will only be one step towards more ambitious power-hungry goals, but that might be fear-mongering, for it is far easier to take an aggressive position against a clearly nasty dictatorship, than to see if there is any way to negotiate out of this. With the Soviet Union reaching parity in levels of strategic forces, the Nixon administration was aware the U. But, as Glasstone points out, weakening of unprotected steel by fire can contribute significantly to the damage to steel-frame structures [pp. 162, 165]."

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Nuclear Deterrence and International Security: Alternative

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As war gave way to an uneasy peace, the rest of the world’s powers scrambled to develop atomic weapons of their own. Pakistan’s research and development efforts into tactical nuclear weapons have been an open secret for some time. We can use an uncomplicated technique to estimate how the attacks would be distributed over time. I am grateful to Peter Hayes of the Nautilus Institute for providing a copy of it, and for his nineteen year effort to get it declassified. [115] Jason Division: Division Consultants Who Are Also Professors are Attacked, Science, February 2, 1973, p. 461. [120] Memo to General Wheeler from Robert N.

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The Legacy of Hiroshima: Its Past, Our Future

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Paul Rogers, Guide to Nuclear Weapons � 1984-85, (Bradford, U. Some weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a thermonuclear weapon that yields a relatively small explosion but a relatively large amount of neutron radiation; such a device could theoretically be used to cause massive casualties while leaving infrastructure mostly intact and creating a minimal amount of fallout. Defensive measures can reduce casualties, but they would still be immense were either of the great powers launch a determined attack.

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Understanding and Teaching the Cold War (The Harvey Goldberg

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In this meeting, they substantially modified the initial understanding beyond a research reactor. PARR-I flO MiVt)tindPARR-2fS& 2005 Nuclear Research and Test Sites in Pakistan Dr. He went so far as to suggest the president should instruct commanders in Vietnam to use any weapons in our arsenal. S. stopped producing fissile material for nuclear weapons in 1992. I think that message is now starting to get through from both the Europeans and the Americans. Obama denounces violence in Middle East, calls for tolerance and democracy "They are also an assault on the very ideals upon which the United Nations was founded -- the notion that people can resolve their differences peacefully, that diplomacy can take the place of war, that in an interdependent world, all of us have a stake in working towards greater opportunity and security for our citizens," he said.

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Wars of the Cold War

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The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ ). While some prefer to view this invading horde as demons, I believe they are an actual army. Equally, a regime in crisis would desperately want to avoid calling nuclear warheads down upon itself. In 1956, France formed a secret Committee for the Military Applications of Atomic Energy and a development program for delivery vehicles.

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The Nuclear Seduction: Why the Arms Race Doesn't Matter--And

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Diameter of a regulation softball: 3.82 in (9.7 cm). - 16 kilograms: Amount needed for an Iraqi bomb design found by UN inspectors. - 50 kilograms: Weight of a solid sphere of 100 percent uranium-235 just large enough to achieve a critical mass without a reflector. With the nucleus being forced to intake another neutron the cell itself will explode causing neutrons to go into other atoms and erupt and it is one long chain reaction. Scientists who continue to study the nuclear weapons have recognized the destruction that could happen if there were a nuclear war.

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Studies Of War; Nuclear and Conventional

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The situation is tense between India and Pakistan: both nations have a handful of small atomic bombs, and India was attacked with Chinese nuclear weapons. One of Germany's top chemical industries, IG Farben, produced the poison for exterminating people in the gas chambers. It is now that Sini’s encounter takes place, an encounter that probably was deliberately designed not to be included in the regular minutes of the meeting. When the risk of retaliation was added in, along with the risk of the weapons spreading to guerilla forces around the world, it amounted to a strong argument against the use of tactical nuclear weapons in the war.

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The Medical Effects of Nuclear War: Report (A Wiley medical

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With the fall of Communism, we have seen 20 years of relative peace. This Australian Prime Minister does not speak for the Australian people and many are very keen to throw him out. North Korea, meanwhile, is a tiny, impoverished, family-run country with a history of being invaded; its overwhelming preoccupation is survival, and every time it becomes more belligerent it reverses itself a few months later (witness last week, when Pyongyang told Seoul and Washington it was ready to return to the bargaining table).

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The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program

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Apparently the thermal effects and radiation were not quick enough as killers. Bundy) to the Secretary of State, November 24, 1964, FRUS, 1964-68, 1:941. [21] Kaiser, America Tragedy, p. 378. The Chiefs, along with commanders in the field, consistently lobbied for expanding the war and removing limitations on the fighting as the only way to achieve victory. Yet the Pentagon has been involved for decades in the drastic manipulation of weather, climate and atmospheric conditions.

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