Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions

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When citing this entry, please also cite the original data source. Such an attack would almost certainly destroy the entire economic, social, and military infrastructure of the target nation, and would probably have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere. Thus both sides were deterred from risking the initiation of a direct confrontation, instead being forced to engage in lower intensity proxy wars. In 1962 the American government took the wise decision that it might be a nice idea to add an extra layer of security to prevent an accidental nuclear apocalypse.

Pages: 34

Publisher: Congressional Research Service (February 7, 2011)


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On that day, they launched the Offeq-1 satellite on the Shavit booster, a system closely related to the Jericho-II missile. They launched the satellite to the west away from the Arabs and against the earth's rotation, requiring even more thrust The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution: Statecraft and the Prospect of Armageddon (Cornell Studies in Security Affairs) It is important to distinguish between what is sometimes called “passive” and “active” deterrence. “Passive” deterrence refers to a situation in which a nation has been so provoked (perhaps by a direct attack on its population) that the response is almost automatic. “Active” deterrence applies to a situation in which the “proper” response to provocation is clearly further escalation (perhaps one’s ally has been struck) , cited: Voices of survival in the nuclear age download pdf. Nicholas Fotion gives the example of a fascist nation under a Nazi-like regime known to practice genocide. “Its military forces need only to overcome [the other nation’s forces] to gather another two hundred million people” to murder. “If [they] are successful, it will likely send at least ten million people to their deaths,” and will likely mean success for their military campaign ref.: The China-India Nuclear Crossroads S. has declassified the fact that four kg of plutonium is sufficient to make a modern nuclear explosive device. As far as we know, the first five nuclear weapon states—the U. K., France and China—all stopped producing fissile materials for weapons before the end of the Cold War or soon thereafter. But they have not formalized their respective moratoria and no on-site verification arrangements exist ref.: The Warriors, Reflections on Men in Battle read online. Because no enemy could realistically hope to destroy all three at the same time, the Triad seemed almost invulnerable , e.g. Minds at War: Nuclear Reality and the Inner Conflicts of Defense Policymakers Minds at War: Nuclear Reality and the. The Russians, would like to see it dropped – although not necessarily as part of the negotiations, as would Iran , e.g. Yellow Dirt: An American Story of a Poisoned Land and a People Betrayed Yellow Dirt: An American Story of a.

On this new basis and in an impressively short time, considering the amount and novelty of the design work and engineering required, the Mike shot, with a yield of about 10 megatons, was conducted in the Pacific on November 1, 1952 ref.: THE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE END OF WORLD WAR 11 Speaking to supporters of Israel, Biden reiterated that “all options, including military force” are on the table as the U Hiroshima Notes Hiroshima Notes. The failure of nuclear weapons states to act to eliminate their nuclear arsenals will likely result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons to other nations. If nuclear weapons states continue to maintain the position that nuclear weapons preserve their security, it is only reasonable that other nations with less powerful military forces, such as North Korea, will decide that their security should also be maintained by nuclear arsenals ref.: The Girls of Atomic City: The Untold Story of the Women Who Helped Win World War II No state can know for sure that another state will refrain from retaliating even when retaliation would be irrational. No state can bet heavily on another state�s rationality. Bernard Brodie put the thought more directly, while avoiding the slippery notion of rationality. Rather than ask what it may be rational or irrational for govern�ments to do, the question he asked, and repeated in various ways over the years, was this: How do governments behave in the pres�ence of awesome dangers , cited: Deterrence: Its Past and download for free

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Reagan believed that the Soviet Union's economy and technological base represented key weaknesses in its Cold War competition with the United States, because of both the intrinsic flaws of the Soviet system and the exor­bitant devotion of Soviet resources to the military. He thought that the United States should lead an expan­sive competition with the Soviets-politically, eco­nomically, and militarily-and that the Soviets could be compelled to change not just their behavior but even the nature of their system pdf. At the beginning of January General Matthew Ridgway again ordered the air force to hit the capital, Pyongyang, "with the goal of burning the city to the ground with incendiary bombs" (this happened in two strikes on 3 and 5 January) , cited: The String of Pearls: Chinese read pdf Unless you’ve never read a single word of this blog, you probably realize that I think NATO should just dump its tactical nuclear arms and get it over with, especially since NATO’s former nuclear targets are now all inside NATO itself At the Abyss: An Insider's read here The trajectory (to the north from Russia) was also considered "legitimate," since conceivably, a real attack could be preceded by launching a missile to the north of Russia and detonating a device with an extra powerful electromagnetic impulse to knock out communications systems. The computer systems classified it as a combat missile and flashed a warning Understanding and Teaching the read online read online. US patent 6,315,213 (Cordani) issued November 13, 2001. 46. “Chemtrails, Bio-Active Crystalline Cationic Polymers,” Dr Tuxedo Park download for free. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material ( enriched uranium or plutonium ) is assembled into a supercritical mass —the amount of material needed to start an exponentially growing nuclear chain reaction —either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another (the "gun" method) or by compressing using explosive lenses a sub-critical sphere of material using chemical explosives to many times its original density (the "implosion" method) Dead Hand: Reagan, Gorbachev and the Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race

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S. administrations progressively upped the level of violence, and engaged in tremendously controversial policies, yet all drew the line at use of nuclear weapons. Despite the enormous costs and frustrations of the war, U. S. leaders avoided resort to the one thing that might have won itusing tactical nuclear weapons. We can distinguish several different motivations for the nonuse of nuclear weapons in Vietnam: first, fear of inadvertent escalation, rooted in calculation about the risk of uncontrolled escalation, plus the potential for an infinitely catastrophic outcome—the dominant factor driving McNamara and others; second, preserving the tradition of nonuse, which Ball had emphasized; and finally, a taboo, a normative belief that using nuclear weapons would be wrong The Nuclear Turning Point: A Blueprint for Deep Cuts and De-Alerting of Nuclear Weapons The Nuclear Turning Point: A Blueprint. And the United States -- which also periodically redraws its security landscape, in an exercise not dissimilar from that of the Kremlin -- has traditionally been more hawkish about the first use of nuclear weapons than has Moscow , cited: Arsenals of Folly: The Making read epub read epub. There will be those who will suffer heart-attacks due to the fear and panic of the horrific event , cited: An Atomic Love Story: The read pdf read pdf. The idea of the total elimination and prohibition of nuclear weapons has occasionally surfaced in the top political echelons, virtually since they were developed. A lot of effort in this respect was made by the USSR, right through from Joseph Stalin [1] to Mikhail Gorbachev ref.: Windows of Opportunity: From read for free read for free. If that risk hangs over them, their strong mutual interest is to withdraw online. Electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) are also produced by nuclear weapons that are exploded at high altitudes, and are caused by the interaction of radiation from the explosion with electrons in the atmosphere and with the Earth's magnetic field Cooperation and Discord in U.S.-Soviet Arms Control (Princeton Legacy Library) read here. Each year, Sandia assesses the reliability and safety of every active stockpile weapon type and documents its findings in a letter from the Laboratories president to the secretaries of energy and defense and the chairman of the Nuclear Weapons Council Exporting the Bomb: Technology Transfer and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons (Cornell Studies in Security Affairs) So I’m not leading you down a path that I can get rid of nuclear weapons.” Also, there is the issue of command and control for conventional strategic forces. The line of command for nuclear strikes has evolved over many decades, but how will it work when a non-nuclear weapon is used in a strategic strike against an adversary’s nuclear weapons facility? The Air Force, which maintains nuclear ICBMs and bombers, pointed out during the editing of the new nuclear doctrine that, although the president and secretary of defense are required to approve all nuclear targeting, they do not necessarily approve conventional targeting.[ 4 ] Presumably, the Bush administration will want to close that hole to ensure 100 percent control of strategic strikes and ensure that other nuclear powers do not misinterpret the intention , e.g. Before the Fall From Marie download here download here. Because thwarting a first strike is easy, deterrent forces are quite cheap to build and maintain. With deterrent forces, the question is not whether one country has more than another but whether it has the capability of inflicting �unacceptable damage� on another, with unacceptable damage sensibly defined The Firecracker Boys: H-Bombs, read pdf read pdf.