By Kerstin Skog, Jan Alexander
Assessing the hazards posed to shoppers by way of acrylamide and different probably carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds is a concern for the nutrition undefined. This ebook offers examine within the zone, discussing the mechanisms of formation of dangerous compounds in the course of warmth therapy, the research of dangerous compounds, ways to determine the dangers and novel easy methods to minimise their formation in meals items.
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Extra resources for Acrylamide and other hazardous compounds in heat-treated foods
Thus, overall acrylamide formation is less favoured from the reaction of asparagine with an dicarbonyl than an -hydroxycarbonyl. Fig. 6 Intermediates formed in the reaction of asparagine with a dicarbonyl compound and their degradation to acrylamide and a Strecker aldehyde. The Maillard reaction 13 Fig. 7 Possible pathway for the formation of acrylamide from asparagine and a reducing sugar via a classical Strecker degradation of the Schiff base. Adapted from Blank et al. (2005). Blank et al. (2005) have suggested that in reaction systems involving reducing sugars the polyhydroxy system may contribute to the degradation of the Schiff base and have proposed a scheme employing classical Strecker degradation together with the release of water (Fig.
The nonIQ-type HAAs do not involve creatinine in their formation and result from the high-temperature treatment of amino acids, such as tryptophan or glutamic acid. Carbolines are formed by the pyrolysis of tryptophan, either free or protein bound (Friedman and Cuq, 1988). The -carbolines, norharman and harman, are formed much more readily than the - or -carbolines. In the case of the free amino acid the -carbolines may be formed from the reaction of tryptophan with formaldehyde or acetaldehyde (Fig.
9). The aminoimidazoquinolines and the aminoimidazoquinoxalines, often referred to collectively as IQ-type HAAs, are believed to be formed as Maillard products from the reaction of pyrazines or pyridines, an aldehyde, such as acetaldehyde or formaldehyde, and creatinine (Fig. 10). Pyrazines are secondary products of the Strecker degradation of amino acids by carbonyl compounds, formed from the condensation of two amino carbonyls (see Fig. 3). , 2004). Creatinine is derived from creatine, which is an essential component of all muscle, and this provides the link between IQ-type HAAs and well-cooked or charred meat.