By G. Alan Marlatt, Gary R. Vandenbos
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Additional resources for Addictive Behaviors: Readings on Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment
Particularly, a mismatch between the child and caretakers with respect to behavioral and affective disposition has been hypothesized to be a critical factor. In a longitudinal research study conducted at the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research, preliminary evidence has been accrued, indicating that the similarity between substanceabusing fathers and 10- to 12-year-old sons, with respect to a composite trait of “difficult affective temperament,” is related to magnitude of behavior problems in the child (Blackson, Tarter, Martin, & Moss, 1994).
Thus, although the evidence is still tenuous, there is indication that the phenotype of low “soothability” may be associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. Also, young alcoholics scored lower than older alcoholics on tasks requiring motor persistence (Alterman, Tarter, Petrarulo, & Baughman, 1984); this finding is contrary to what would be expected if the deficit were only the consequence of an alcoholism history and suggests that poor task persistence antedates the alcoholism. It is also noteworthy that neurophysiological investigations reveal deviations on the P300 wave component of event-related potentials (Begleiter, Porjesz, & Kissin, 1984).
In the example provided, the hypothetical individual develops the affected condition of alcoholism. However, the same conceptual framework applies to cases where the person does not develop alcoholism. Furthermore, depending on the changing constituents of R, it can be seen how both “spontaneous” remission and rapid development of dependence can occur. ” As shown in Figure 1, this is the range of potential change for the particular phenotype. In other words, limits are attached to the capacity to influence the magnitude of change that can be expected for a given individual.