Download Animal Architects: Building and the Evolution of by James L. Gould, Carol Grant Gould PDF

By James L. Gould, Carol Grant Gould

Animal habit has lengthy been a battleground among the competing claims of nature and nurture, with the potential position of cognition in habit as a up to date addition to this debate. there's an untapped trove of behavioral information which can let us know greatly approximately how the animals draw from those neural techniques: The constructions animals construct supply an outstanding window at the workings of the animal brain. Animal Architects examines animal structure throughout a number of species, from these whose blueprints are mostly innate (such as spiders and their webs) to these whose not easy buildings appear to require highbrow perception, making plans, or even aesthetics (such as bowerbirds’ nests, or beavers’ dams). starting with intuition and the straightforward houses of solitary bugs, James and Carol Gould movement directly to conditioning; the “cognitive map” and the way it advanced; and the function of making plans and perception. eventually, they give some thought to what animal development tells us concerning the nature of human intelligence-showing why people, in contrast to many animals, have to construct castles within the air.

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Metaimmunological musings SPECULATIVE THINKING Two opinions Science is a process that discovers new data and tests hypotheses about the organisation and operating principles of the world. But science is also a creative and constructive process in which the world becomes categorised and conceptualised by the scientist. The English expression “science” (Lat. scientia – having knowledge) captures only the first of these ideas, while the German word “wissenschaft” (wissen – knowledge, schaft – creation), and the related Norwegian word “vitenskap” (viten – knowledge, skap – creation), capture both connotations.

The inspector did apparently not agree as he muttered “Some folk might say that there was madness in his method” (Conan Doyle 1976). Holmes emphasised the need for pursuing several possible lines of explanation that take account of the facts, and in The Hound of the Baskervilles Dr. ” When being accused of guess work, Holmes replied that what may appear as guessing is “rather, into the region where we balance probabilities and choose the most likely. ” Method in madness is thus instantiated when abductive inferences are restricted to the best explanations, in which the “best explanation” is taken to be best among the competing alternatives that fit the facts.

Adjuvancy The pushing back of the self-nonself discriminating capability, from the B cell to the T cell to the antigen-presenting cell, that took place from the end of the 1950s to the 1970s, begged the question of how the antigen-presenting cell could make the crucial distinction between self and non-self. A solution to the question occurred when Charles Janeway (1989) speculated upon the role of adjuvants in immunisation. The term adjuvant, which is derived from the Latin verb adjuvare, to help or aid, was introduced in the 1940s when it was discovered that strong immune responses against purified antigens could be obtained if antigen was mixed with killed bacterial debris.

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