By H. Katsumata
Katsumata demonstrates that anything attention-grabbing is happening contained in the ASEAN local discussion board (ARF). He exhibits that an organization of juvenile powers in Southeast Asia is selling its cooperative defense norm, and influencing the regulations of its exterior companions. hence, the ARF is without doubt one of the very important pathways to local safety.
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Extra resources for ASEAN’s Cooperative Security Enterprise: Norms and Interests in the ASEAN Regional Forum
6. In this regard, Jeffrey Checkel and his colleagues explore the ‘scope conditions’ under which different mechanisms of norm internalization operate. Mere behavioural adaptation based on ‘strategic calculation’ is likely when actors expect the benefits associated with norm-compliance to be greater than the costs. Internalization through ‘normative suasion’ may take place, for example, when actors are in an uncertain environment, or when they have few prior beliefs which are inconsistent with the new norm (2005; also see Checkel 2001, 581, 1997b).
As Lisa Martin illustrates, a ‘collaboration’ or ‘prisoners’ dilemma’ game requires strong international institutions which make it harder for each player to defect since equilibrium outcomes are suboptimal, but an ‘assurance’ or ‘stag hunt’ game and a ‘coordination’ game require no strong mechanisms to enforce cooperation. Problems involved in these kinds of games can be solved without any highly institutionalized frameworks. In an assurance game, as long as all the players cooperate, there are no gains to be derived from cheating; hence, in equilibrium, there are no incentives to defect.
7 Notes 1. It can be said that, with respect to a set of ideas associated with security cooperation, the distinction between ‘principled ideas’ and ‘causal ideas’ is blurred. The latter may have some elements of the former. Emmanuel Adler’s argument is illustrative. During the East–West confrontation, arms control policies were shaped on the basis of the scientific knowledge offered by an epistemic community, underlying the causal relations between such policies and the prevention of nuclear war.