By Robin Jeffrey
Creation / Robin Jeffrey --
The Philippines / Alfred W. McCoy --
India / Robin Jeffrey --
Indonesia / Anthony Reid --
Vietnam / David Marr --
Malaya / Lee Kam Hing --
end / D.A. Low.
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Additional info for Asia—The Winning of Independence
Meeting with a number of prominent Filipinos in the Manila suburb of Tondo, Rizal formed a reformist mutal aid society, La Liga Filipina. 2 6 Rizal's arrest and the Spanish government's refusal to grant any concessions soon led to the collapse of the elite reformist movement. With the arrest of Rizal, leadership of the nationalist movement passed to a poor Manila worker, Andres Bonifacio. Born in November 1863, two years later than Rizal, Bonifacio was a Malay-Filipino and a member of the Manila working class.
Spanish colonials administered the mestizos through racially exclusive ghetto councils and used the colonial law to preserve their distinctiveness. IS Such measures preserved the mestizos' sense of separateness; other colonial policies pushed them into confrontation with the Spanish regime - a process which first forced an intermediate group identity, what might be called 'mestizo consciousness" upon the urban ghetto communities. The transition from parochial to national identity took place in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
After a hasty, secret trial whose transcript was never released, Fr Burgos and two other secular priests were executed by garrotte in a public park on 17 February 1872 for the crime of trying 'to separate this archipelago from the mother country'. An instrument of slow and painful death, the garrotte gradually breaks the spinal cord at the neck with each measured twist of the heavy, iron screw. In addition to the spectacular brutality of the public executions, nine Filipino priests and thirteen laymen were sentenced to a year's exile in the Marianas Islands.