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By David C. Sim, James S. McLaren, Chris Keith

This quantity describes the attitudes in the direction of Gentiles in either historical Judaism and the early Christian culture. The Jewish dating with and perspectives concerning the Gentiles performed a massive half in Jewish self-definition, particularly within the Diaspora the place Jews shaped the minority between better Gentile populations. Jewish attitudes in the direction of the Gentiles are available within the writings of sought after Jewish authors (Josephus and Philo), sectarian hobbies and texts (the Qumran neighborhood, apocalyptic literature, Jesus) and in Jewish associations similar to the Jerusalem Temple and the synagogue. within the Christian culture, which started as a Jewish circulate yet constructed quick right into a predominantly Gentile culture, the position and standing of Gentile believers in Jesus used to be constantly of the most important importance. Did Gentile believers have to convert to Judaism as an integral part in their association with Jesus, or had the looks of the messiah rendered such differences invalid? This quantity assesses the wide range of viewpoints by way of attitudes in the direction of Gentiles and the prestige and expectancies of Gentiles within the Christian church.

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The second is the Exposition of the Law, a presentation of the contents of the Pentateuch. It includes the lives of Patriarchs and a detailed examination of the Mosaic Law in the form of both the Decalogue and the Special Commandments organised under the headings of the Decalogue. The third is the Questions and Answers on Genesis and Exodus, a kind of repository of scriptural exegesis presented as in the form of questions on the text. Unfortunately, it has been preserved for the most part only in an Armenian translation.

Too W. G. 137–8. 353–6; and J. 135–8. 358–62. Cf. 152–64, for discussion of the inscriptions from Asia Minor. 1 1. 20 This list includes thirteen native-born Jews, three individuals speci¿cally denoted as proselytes, and two who are each described as a God-worshipper (RFPTFCIK). The other side of the inscription contains further lists of names, presumably of less prominent contributors to the same cause. It begins with a list of ¿fty-¿ve Jews followed by the words ‘and as many God-worshippers (LBJ= PTPJ RFPTFCJK), although only ¿fty-two of these are named.

23 Certainly Philo and Josephus are completely positive about these people, and all Jews must have deemed them to be superior to the majority of Gentiles who showed little interest in Judaism or who were critical of the Jews and their religion. In some cases God-fearers were permitted to hold important positions within the local Jewish community. The Aphrodisias inscription cites two God-fearers among the decany, which suggests that they enjoyed some prominence. But despite their close af¿liation with Jewish groups and the fact that some could hold prominent positions, these God-fearers had not crossed the boundary that separated Jew from Gentile; they still remained outside the covenant community.

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