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W T Sherrill, Text. Chem. Colorist, 10 (1978) 210. , 91 (1975) 168. , 85 (1969) 606. 1 INTERACTION BETWEEN DISPERSE DYES AND REACTIVE DYES The risk of interaction between these two dye classes is a significant factor limiting the selection of suitable dyes for the one-bath pad–thermofix dyeing of polyester/cellulosic blends. These problems may arise as a result of covalent reaction between reactive dyes and certain disperse dyes, interaction between reactive dyes and dispersing agents, or instability of the dye dispersion system under the alkaline conditions of padding.

In many systems of interacting anionic and cationic Contents Home 52 MINIMISING INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN DYES FROM DIFFERENT CLASSES surfactants an excess of either one may have a solubilising effect by disaggregating the complex formed between them. The hybrid surfactants generally characterised as weakly cationic or weakly anionic are particularly useful in this respect, since the oxyethylene chains inhibit ionisation and exert a solubilising and stabilising action on the complex entities present.

1. These will be referred to frequently in later chapters and it is convenient to use the four hyphenated abbreviations listed in the first column to distinguish between them. In general, the progressive increase in cost in moving down this list is compensated by a wider choice of suitable dyes and greater freedom from the practical problems discussed in terms of typical examples in the remainder of this chapter. 1 Summary of general dyeing methods for binary blends Method Dyebaths Dye classes Stages Single-class One-bath Two-stage Two-bath One One One Two One Two simultaneously Two in sequence Two One One Two Two the depth of shade required, the more likely is it necessary to move to a method lower down this list.

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