By Paul Weindling, Marius Turda
The background of eugenics and racial nationalism in important and Southeast Europe is a ignored subject of research in modern scholarship. The 20 essays during this quantity, written via special students of eugenics and fascism along a brand new iteration of students, excavate the hitherto unknown eugenics activities in critical and Southeast Europe, together with Austria and Germany. Eugenics and racial nationalism are issues that experience continually been marginalized and rated as incompatible with neighborhood nationwide traditions in important and Southeast Europe. those issues obtain a brand new remedy the following. at the one hand, the historiographic viewpoint connects advancements within the heritage of anthropology and eugenics with political ideologies comparable to racial nationalism and anti-Semitism; nonetheless, it contests the Sonderweg method followed via students facing those matters. The e-book might function a advisor within the heritage of eugenics and racism in critical and Southeast Europe among 1900 and 1940 and it can be used as a platform for a extra normal theoretical debate approximately theories of nationwide specificity and forte .
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Extra info for Blood And Homeland: Eugenics And Racial Nationalism in Central And Southeast Europe, 1900-1940
Stuttgart: Enke, 1963); and Ilse Schwidetzky, Einführung in die Völkerbiologie (Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer, 1950). From “Prisoner of War Studies” to Proof of Paternity: Racial Anthropologists and the Measuring of “Others” in Austria Margit Berner From the beginning of the twentieth century, the separation of physical and cultural anthropology occurred differently in English-speaking and German-speaking countries. Traditional academic seats of learning in Germany, and the names of the oldest learned societies, such as the German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory (Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschchte), or the Viennese Anthropological Society (Anthropologische Gesellschaft in Wien), reflected distinct branches of anthropology.
20 At the same time, the study served a political purpose. Eickstedt and his team of researchers were encouraged and aided by the SS officer Fritz Arlt, the local representative of the “Reich’s Commissar for the Stabilization of the German Nation” in Upper Silesia. 21 The reasons for a study on the racial makeup of Silesia originated in the ethnic-political struggles between Germany and Poland after the First World War. Eickstedt tried to provide scientific evidence for the notion that the majority of the Silesian population were of “Nordic stock,” and hence German.
After the Second World War, he and his student Ilse Schwidetzky (1907–1997)––who had followed him to Mainz and would succeed him as professor of anthropology––made some semantic concessions to the new political circumstances. Until the early 1960s, the term “race” was dropped and was replaced by less suspicious-sounding terminology. Schwidetzky, for instance, now wrote of Völkerbiologie (national biology) instead of racial studies; Eickstedt gave the completely revised and enlarged threevolume edition of his “Racial Study and Racial History of Humanity” the title Forschung am Menschen (Research on Man).