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By Colin Heywood

The principal subject matter of this booklet is the altering adventure of formative years one of the peasants and dealing sessions of nineteenth-century France. guide paintings and casual equipment of schooling within the local people grew to become much less renowned at this degree of existence, when the first university loomed more and more huge. the 1st part of the e-book considers formative years in rural society; the second one examines the influence of commercial improvement at the lives of working-class young children; and the 3rd strains the kid labour laws of 1841 and 1874. the needs of the paintings are to appreciate why the perform of kid labour, thought of solely appropriate within the early 19th century, turned a subject for reform from the 1830s, and in addition to evaluate the innovations followed by way of the French kingdom for curtailing abuses. Its value lies in its unique synthesis of fabric on baby labour, apprenticeship and schooling, drawing on a extensive variety of basic resources in addition to the present literature in similar fields of research.

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183; Jean and Renee Nicolas, La Vie quotidienne en Savoie aux XVHe et XVHIe siecles (Paris, 1979); Bozon, La Vie rurale en Vivarais, p p . 1 3 0 - 6 . See, for example, Gay Gullickson, 'The Sexual Division of Labor in Cottage Industry and Agriculture in the Pays de Caux: Auffray, 1 7 5 0 - 1 8 5 0 ' , French Historical Studies, 7 (1981), 1 7 7 - 9 9 ; Colin Heywood, 'The Rural Hosiery Industry of the Lower Champagne Region, 1 7 5 0 - 1 8 5 0 ' , Textile History, 7 (1976), 9 5 ; AN, C 945, Charleville (Ardennes).

2; Tardieu, Vie domestique dans le maconnais, p. 98. Poitrineau, Basse-auvergne, pp. , 'L'Alimentation en Auvergne au XVIIIe siecle', in Hemardinquer, Histoire de I'alimentation, p. 152. See also Guy Thuillier, 'L'Alimentation en Nivernais au XIX e siecle', Annales ESC, 20 (1965), 1175; and Bougeatre, Mantois et Vexin, pp. 5 1 - 6 , 1 2 1 . The latter reveals that even in the late nineteenth century young children risked intestinal infections from eating adult food too early: often below the age of two.

Such symptoms of under-development were of course most evident in southern and western France, being well documented by historians in the cases of the Auvergne and the Limousin. 42 This, then, was the 40 41 42 Marcel Reinhard et ai, Histoire generate de la population mondiale (Paris, 1968), pp. -C. Toutain, La Population de la France de 1700 a 1959 (Paris, 1963), pp. 5-33. Statistical evidence of economic growth, for all its limitations, goes back to the early nineteenth century. ' In these circumstances, it is not surprising that the major authorities on rural society suggest that during the second half of the eighteenth century, and the first half of the nineteenth, there was no absolute 'pauperization' of subsistence farmers and agricultural labourers.

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