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Ethanol solvent use Ethanol ranks second only to water as an industrial solvent. 8. g and a slow growth rate of 2-3% per year is expected. 9 summarizes several of the more important chemicals that can be derived from ethanol. -operecycle Azeotropic dlsblatJon Witer removaf Fig. 9 : Benzene azeotropic distillation for anhydrous ethanol. Ethanol fuel use Fuel use in internal combustion engines is the fastest growing application for fementative ethanol. The original Otto engine was developed using angydrous ethanol fuel.

L Cl. '< + + GI = Glucose; Ga = Galactose; Ma = Maltose; S = Saccharose; L = Lactose; R = Raffinose; T = Trehalose ~ 'l 48 Fig. 5 : Torulopsis stellata Comprehensive Biotechnology Fig. 6 : Hanseniaspora uvarum uvarum, Hansenula anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia fermentans , and P. membranaefaciens). 3). The effect of their occurrence on the essentials of wine quality is known. Killer (K) yeasts These yeasts are capable of excreting a toxin tha t is lethal for so-called "sensitive" (5) strains.

The distillation columns are costly as the azeotropic column alone requires 50 plates and is of similar diameter to the primary stripper rectifier. Ethonoilwater azeotrope recycle 89%E 11%W Feed 89%E 11%W Water Azeotroplc dlstllatlon Benzene recovery Water removal Fig. 6 : Benzene azeotropic distillation for anhydrous ethanol In the US, anhydrous alcohol is generally refined from 94 wt% azeotropic alcohol. 0 kg of steam per liter of product. In Europe, a modification (the Melle 5th method) has been widely used (Fig.

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