By John S.
From the booklet - Preface:This guide has been compiled to supply time frames, hard work crews and kit spreads to help the estimator in capsulizing an estimate for the deploy of cross-country pipelines, marshland pipelines, nearshore and surf quarter pipelines, submerged pipelines, wharfs, jetties, dock amenities, single-point morring terminals, offshore drilling and creation structures and kit and appurtenances put in thereon. The time frames and hard work and kit spreads which look all through this guide are the results of many time and procedure reviews performed less than diverse stipulations and at destinations in the course of the international; those time frames and hard work and gear spreads replicate a whole, independent view of all operations concerned. while one is engaged in compiling an estimate from any info supplied via others, as is the case with this handbook, he should still view it in an goal gentle, giving due attention to the character of the undertaking to hand and comparing all goods which may impact the productiveness of work and all different components concerned.
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Reduction of lighting energy can also increase the energy use of building heating and decrease cooling system consumption, since internal heat gains are reduced. However, this heat-of-light is often a relatively expensive method of heating a building. If the building cooling plant is to be replaced, implementation of lighting measures can reduce the required plant size. HVAC Systems The HVAC systems in the building are made up of energy conversion equipment, which transforms electrical or chemical energy to thermal energy, and distribution and ventilation systems, which transport the thermal energy and supply fresh outdoor air to the conditioned space.
Energy Use in Hotels/Motels ——————————————————————————————— Energy Use in Hotels/Motels Range (%) Norm (%) ——————————————————————————————— Space Heating 45-70 60 ——————————————————————————————— Lighting 5-15 11 ——————————————————————————————— Air Conditioning 3-15 10 ——————————————————————————————— Refrigeration 0-10 4 ——————————————————————————————— Special Functions 5-20 15 (laundry, kitchen, restaurant, swimming pool, elevators, security lighting, hot water) ——————————————————————————————— Table 2-9.
Focusing on reducing demand during those months of highest use would become a top priority for reducing demand charges throughout the year. Power Factor Charge Utilities generally assess a penalty for low “power factor” to some larger commercial and industrial customers. The reason is that not all of the power you use registers on the energy and demand meters. Energy (kWh) and demand (kW) meters record the “real” energy use and power that does useful work or makes heat. In addition to energy and demand, “reactive power” is used by induction motors and transformers to excite magnetic fields and causes electrical current to flow partially out of phase.