By John Punter
Layout guidance in American towns ДИЗАЙН, ДОМ и СЕМЬЯ,НАУКА и УЧЕБА Название: layout directions in American towns Автор: John Punter Издательство: Liverpool collage Press Год: 1999 Страниц: 248 ISBN: 0853238936Формат: pdf Размер: 7 MBThis publication is a research of layout tasks and guidelines in 5 US West Coast towns – Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Irvine and San Diego – all of that have had fairly fascinating adventure of relevance to city layout perform in Britain and different countries.uploadbox.com.com eighty five
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Extra info for Design Guidelines in American Cities
The second new point is that ‘where rigorous a priori guidelines and rules are unworkable’ proper administrative procedures must be laid down for review boards, including the handing down of written opinions, developing principles of judgement from precedent decisions, applying the test of reasonableness to all decisions, and providing the right of appeal to legal/administrative professionals (Lai 1988, p. 427; Lai 1994, pp. 37–9). The third point is based on two judgements made by Supreme Court Justice Brennan, both in southern California, which have been amalgamated and labelled as ‘Brennan’s Rule’.
All three are reinforced by objective 14 on creating a comfortable pedestrian environment with principles of sunlight access and wind speed reductions at ground level. These are well elaborated into guidelines for downtown open space that are part prescriptive, part performance related. So there are prescriptive standards for seeking public space per building square footage on the one hand, and performance standards like maximising sunshine or accessibility on the other (Fig. 55). The plan also includes advice on how to meet pedestrian improvement standards and the like (Fig.
It is useful to generalise these into what has been described elsewhere as a hierarchy of design guidelines (Punter and Carmona 1997, Chapter 12), partly to provide a set of terms which are interchangeable between systems, but also to reveal the full range of guidance that is available to planners and urban designers (Fig. 7). This hierarchy proceeds from the national through the regional levels to the scale of the municipality, and then down through sub-areas of neighbourhoods to individual sites.