By David A. Mindell
As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended towards the moon less than automated keep an eye on, a application alarm within the counsel computer’s software program approximately triggered a project abort. Neil Armstrong replied through switching off the automated mode and taking direct regulate. He stopped tracking the pc and commenced flying the spacecraft, hoping on ability to land it and incomes compliment for a triumph of human over machine.In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this recognized second as a kick off point for an exploration of the connection among people and pcs within the Apollo application. In all the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized keep an eye on from the pc and landed along with his hand at the stick. Mindell recounts the tale of astronauts' wish to keep an eye on their spacecraft in parallel with the background of the Apollo counsel machine. From the early days of aviation during the beginning of spaceflight, try pilots and astronauts sought to be greater than "spam in a can" regardless of the automated controls, electronic pcs, and software program built by means of engineers. Digital Apollo examines the layout and execution of every of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and information telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's broad archives.Mindell's exploration of the way human pilots and automatic platforms labored jointly to accomplish the final word in flight—a lunar landing—traces and reframes the talk over the way forward for people and automation in area. the implications have implications for any enterprise within which human roles look threatened by means of computerized platforms, if it is the paintings at our pcs or the way forward for exploration.
__________Подробный рассказ о компьютерных системах, использовавшихся на космических кораблях серии "Аполлон". В этой книге инженер-историк Дэвид Минделл рассказывает о взаимоотношениях между автоматикой и человеком, о том, как астронавты с самого начала космических полётов не желали быть просто "мясом в банке" и хотели сами управлять космическим кораблём. Читатель узнает, что каждый раз при лунной посадке астронавт переходил на ручное управление и сажал корабль на Луну с помощью рычага управления. Автор рассказывает о разработке бортового компьютера Аполлон, а также подробно описывает все шесть лунных экспедиций, основываясь на стенограммах переговоров, данных телеметрии, интервью с астронавтами и обширных архивах НАСА.
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Extra info for Digital Apollo
They sold systems engineering as an authoritative scientific way to transcend ‘‘politics’’ (whether public or military-industrial) with the outside neutrality of the expert. Systems engineering thus elevated the ‘‘systems men’’ to a new level of influence, creating a new niche for engineers as educated managers of large projects and budgets. ’’ These issues came to the fore as the test pilots began to contemplate spaceflight. As one flight test engineer Chauffeurs and Airmen in the Age of Systems 39 remembered this period: ‘‘The ‘head shrinkers’ and the ‘spasmatologists’ had decided that man had reached the limits of his capabilities.
The term chauffeur connotes an ordinary skill, a person who is paid to perform a common task, driving an automobile, for another person of higher social status (the word robot has similar connotations). For the chauffeur school, flight is inherent in the machine, and hence the product of the engineer or designer. The term airmen, however, suggests someone who flies for himself, who is part of a new profession, living in a new element, and it also identifies him as male. In the Chauffeurs and Airmen in the Age of Systems 23 airmen school, the pilot’s continuous, active involvement—his skill—is required to maintain stable flight.
This question was not purely technical but also social, for stability and control were becoming less and less the domain of an aircraft’s structural engineers or aerodynamicists and more the domain of electronics and ‘‘systems’’ experts. Before going on and considering the test pilots’ response to space travel, then, we must examine the rise of ‘‘systems,’’ the major intellectual movement in engineering after World War II. The systems experts, the organizations they came from, and the ideas they developed played a major role in Apollo, though their dominance did not go unchallenged.