By Peter F. Sugar
The function of the 3 significant isms of the 20th century (Fascism, Communism and Nationalism) and their significance within the heritage of 9 jap eu international locations (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the previous Yugoslavia) is roofed.
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Extra resources for Eastern European Nationalism in the Twentieth Century
Hoxha benefited from a number of other advantages as well. He had the example of Zog, which occasionally allowed him to avoid mistakes. More important, he had the legacy of fascism and the See Reginald Hibbert, Albania’s National Liberation Struggle: The Bitter Victory (London: Pinter, 1991), 25-26. The question of what role the Yugoslavs played in the formation of the Albanian party and what position the Yugoslav party took on Kosove during the war has caused considerable debate among historians.
Stavto Skendi, The Albanian National Awakening, 1878-1912 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), 108. Skendi, The Albanian National Awakening, 467. 30 EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONALISM the century, the Albanians had most often fought for, rather than against, the Turks. 13With the victory of the Young Turks in 1908, there was a flurry of nationalistic activity in Albania, including the founding of schools, newspapers, cultural and political organizations, and—perhaps of primary significance— the meeting of the Monastir congress in November which was called to decide on a common alphabet for the Albanian language.
The nature of Albanian civilization and heritage also contributed significandy to the problem. The various divisions and various levels of development within the Albanian community encouraged localism and inhibited the development of a national frame of reference. The existence of three religious groups prevented churches from playing the unifying role they played in many other areas of Eastern Europe. Much more important, the nature of Albanian society provided a powerful block to unity: apart from their religious differences, the Albanians also were divided linguistically, culturally, socially, and economically.