By Dominick Salvatore & Eugene Diulio
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80. 80 for each change in disposable income. It is constant for any linear consumption function since the MPC is the consumption function’s slope, and all straight lines have a constant slope. Note! Consumers comprise the largest percentage of aggregate spending, so their actions are very important to the strength of the economy. Investment Gross investment is the least stable component of aggregate spending and a principal cause of the business cycle. In calculating GDP, investment consists of residential construction; nonresidential construction (ofﬁces, hotels, and other commercial real estate); producers’ durable equipment; and changes in inventories.
While market demand for most agricultural commodities is relatively stable over time, market supply is very much inﬂuenced by the weather. A drought, for example, decreases supply and pushes up prices while a bumper crop can severely depress agricultural prices. The profitability of farming becomes uncertain, as does the price of food products and the income needed to feed a household. Thus, the reasons for agricultural price supports (price ﬂoors) are: (1) to stabilize farmer incomes and encourage farmers to continue farming whether there are bumper crops or droughts; (2) to provide a steadier ﬂow of agricultural products at relatively stable prices; and (3) to stabilize the amount of income that households need to spend on food.
Figure 3-3 36 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Solution: a. Figure 3-3 depicts a classical aggregate supply curve since it shows no relationship between aggregate output and the price level. b. Equilibrium exists where the aggregate demand curve intersects the aggregate supply curve. Equilibrium for curves AD and AS exists at point A; the price level is p0 and output is y1. c. Increased government spending results in an outward shift of aggregate demand. There is no change in aggregate supply since there has been no change in the economy’s ability to produce goods and services.