By Prof. Dr. G. M. J. Veldkamp (auth.)
Read Online or Download EISS Yearbook 1980–1981 Part I / Annuaire EISS 1980–1981 Partie I: Social security reforms in Europe II / La réforme de la sécurité sociale en Europe II PDF
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Additional info for EISS Yearbook 1980–1981 Part I / Annuaire EISS 1980–1981 Partie I: Social security reforms in Europe II / La réforme de la sécurité sociale en Europe II
Except in Belgium and Ireland an above average reliance on taxes on income and profits matches with a below average reliance on social security contributions and conversely. Belgium is above and Ireland below average on both sources of taxes. IV. 2. DEVELOPMENTS BETWEEN 1965 AND 1975 Changes of tax levels and tax structures are also reported in Tables 1 and 2. 87 per cent point on the average with Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium and Sweden as high increase countries, France, Italy and Germany as low increase countries and United Kingdom and Ireland in betweeen.
The degression in employer contributions in general is greater than in employee contributions, partly as a result of the different percentages for employers and employees in the total financing. The burden of contributions on enterprises with relatively low-paid wo~kers is greater than that on those 42 with relatively high-paid employees, because in general the total contributions follow a degressive pattern. Unlike direct taxes, which are income-related as are the contributions, income ceilings for the contributions mean that only a 1 imited part of the income is subject to levy.
Vf. Pierik (Netherland\') The financing of social security 1. INTRODUCTION The countries of Western Europe finance their social security systems in widely different ways, and any comparison and assessment must necessarily be confined to some of the main features if it is to be in any way illuminating. Despite the many differences between the systems, however, they all have one thing in common: social security expenditure is financed by apportioning current expenditure through income-related levies in the form of contributions and/or direct taxes or by non-income-related levies in the form of indirect taxes.