By Tharwat F. Tadros
Emulsions presents a basic advent, the commercial function of emulsifiers and addresses diverse difficulties reminiscent of creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and part inversion. Thermodynamics, adsorption and interplay forces among emulsion droplets are completely defined. Supplemented by means of many figures and tables, it is helping to symbolize and choose the correct emulsifier for numerous commercial purposes.
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Additional info for Emulsions: Formation, Stability, Industrial Applications
Encyclopedia of Colloid and Interface Science, Springer, Germany, 2013. 3 Interaction forces between emulsion droplets Generally speaking, there are three main interaction forces (energies) between emulsion droplets, which are discussed in the following. 1 Van der Waals attraction As is well known, atoms or molecules always attract each other at short distances of separation. The attractive forces are of three different types: dipole–dipole interaction (Keesom), dipole-induced dipole interaction (Debye) and London dispersion force.
Amer. Chem. Soc. 41 (1919), 499. J. L. Lando, and H. T. Oakley, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 25 (1967), 526. M. C. Wilkinson and R. L. Kidwell, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35 (1971), 114. B. , New Sci. Intrum. 13 (1942), 6. 1 Introduction As mentioned in Chapter 1, to prepare an emulsions oil, water, surfactant and energy are needed. The composition of the system and its nature (oil-in-water, O/W, or waterin-oil, W/O) is determined by the nature of the emulsiﬁer and the process applied [1–5]. Parameters such as the volume fraction of the disperse phase, φ, and the droplet size distribution are determined by the composition of the emulsiﬁer layer around the droplets as well as the process of emulsiﬁcation (see Chapter 6).
11. δ R μα i h dV (μß) i Chemical potential of solvent h Fig. 11: Schematic representation of polymer layer overlap. Consider two spherical droplets with the same radius and each containing an adsorbed polymer layer with thickness δ. Before overlap, one can deﬁne in each polymer layer a chemical potential for the solvent μiα and a volume fraction for the polymer in the layer φ2α . In the overlap region (volume element dV), the chemical potential of the β solvent is reduced to μi . This results from the increase in polymer segment concentraβ tion in this overlap region which is now φ 2 .