Download Essential Physics, Chemistry and Biology by D. F. Horrobin (auth.) PDF

By D. F. Horrobin (auth.)

of those matters and will be saved continuously handy in order that it may without problems be consulted while tough subject matters come up. i'm hoping that it will possibly achieve lowering the phobia with which many nurses face the sciences with which the publication bargains. part 1 BIOLOGY 2 The mobilephone and its specifications the realm of dwelling issues is with ease and conven­ tionally divided into nice teams, the animals and the vegetation. basically the $64000 function which distinguishes vegetation is they can manufacture lots of the elements they require by way of trapping and utilizing a number of varieties of outdoor strength, specifically the power of solar. within the technique of photosynthesis they make the most of the power of sunshine to accumulate advanced chemical compounds from fairly uncomplicated ones. against this, animals lack the power to take advantage of gentle or the other type of open air power. as an alternative they have to receive the power they require via breaking down advanced elements which finally they constantly receive from vegetation. Plant-eating animals comparable to cows and sheep receive those elements at once. Carnivores receive them in a roundabout way once they have undergone the our bodies of different animals.

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Extra resources for Essential Physics, Chemistry and Biology

Sample text

If the blood is to be pushed around the body by the heart, the pumping mechanism must raise the pressure of the blood (see chapter 10). The pressure of the blood in the vessels is therefore Osmotic pressure and capillary function 63 greater than the pressure of the extracellular fluid outside the vessels. The situation is comparable to that of a rubber pipe through which ink is being pumped passing through a tank of clear water. The pressure of the ink inside the pipe is much greater than the pressure of the water outside.

One equivalent is the equivalent weight in grams of any element or ion. It tends to be rather a large quantity. It is therefore often much more convenient to use the term milliequivalent instead. One milliequivalent is one-thousandth of one equivalent. For instance, as a nurse you will frequently read laboratory reports of estimations ofthe sodium and potassium concentrations in the plasma of patients. These concentrations are usually expressed in terms of milliequivalents per litre. The normal concentration of sodium is usually 140 milliequivalentsjlitre while the normal concentration of potassium is about 4·5 milliequivalentsjlitre.

There are many varieties of solute in the body which differ greatly in the ease with which they will dissolve in water (in other words in their solubility in water). The most important solutes are as follows: 1. Inorganic substances which are readily soluble in water such as sodium, po~ssium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. 2. Inorganic substances which can dissolve in water but cannot do so very easily. The most important of these are iron, calcium and phosphate ions. Iron is transported in the blood by a special mechanism so avoiding the need for it to dissolve in the plasma.

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