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By Constantina Tzia, George Liadakis

The one entire resource on extraction strategy optimization, this text/reference info the install, building, improvement, modeling, regulate, and economics of traditional and really good extraction platforms within the foodstuff processing undefined.

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5). Copyright © 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Introduction 27 Figure 5 Fugacity of a solvent and a solute as function of their mole fraction. The standard chemical potential of the solvent is that of the pure liquid at 1 atm and the temperature of the solution. For the solute, however, it is not possible to define a similar standard state since there cannot be solutions after a certain composition, with higher solute concentrations. In this case, it is adopted as standard state for the solute the hypothetical, ideal unit concentration of solute solution, at certain pressure and temperature (reference state) or at the fixed pressure of 1 atm (standard state).

Solvent Selection Solvent selection is based on several properties: 1. Solubility of the specific compound (or compounds) in the solvent. 2. Recovery, since the solvent will be reused in subsequent extractions. If distillation or evaporation is used, the solvent should not form azeotropes and the latent heat of vaporization should be small. Removal of the solvent from the miscella (and from the spent solids) can pose serious problems if the residual level of the solvent must be minimized. 3. Interfacial tension and viscosity.

Beyond C there is no liquid or vapor phase, but only one single-fluid phase. At the critical point ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ ∂P ∂V = 0, TC ∂2P ∂V2 =0 (100) TC Point C is called the critical point and the corresponding P, T the critical Pressure PC and the critical Temperature TC of the studying substance. B. The Chemical Potential in Phase Equilibria (7, 11) In the previous section we saw that between two phases a, b in equilibrium for every substance i µai = µbi (101) µi0,a + R T ln aai = µi0,b + R T ln abi (102) or Since the µi0,a and µi0,b are the chemical potentials of the pure i at the same P, T then µi0,a = µi0,b (103) and consequently from (103) aai = abi (104) but this does not mean that necessarily the activity coefficients γai, γbi will be equal since usually xai ≠ xbi For the case of liquid–vapor equilibrium we have seen for the vapor phase that Copyright © 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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