By Nickie Charles
Read or Download Families in Transition: Social Change, Family Formation and Kin Relationships PDF
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Additional info for Families in Transition: Social Change, Family Formation and Kin Relationships
Changes in the gendering of employment and employment patterns are underpinned by economic and demographic change. Structural changes in the economy include the decline of manufacturing and 27 Families in transition heavy industry and the rise of the service sector, initially with the expansion of the welfare state and the retail sector and, more recently, with the growth of financial and leisure services. The proportion of the population engaged in manufacturing, for instance, fell from 33% in 1966 to 20% in 1991 (Gallie, 2000), and by 2001, 22% of male jobs were in manufacturing compared with 8% of female jobs (ONS, 2001b).
Furthermore, although ‘the family’ is a category which is socially constructed, the principle of this social construction is internalised and forms part of our habitus, a habitus which is shared by all those socialised in a world that is ‘organised according to the division into families’ (Bourdieu, 1996, 21). It is therefore both individual and collective. Thus, rather as Marx speaks of commodities, Bourdieu argues that social categories are ‘rooted both in the objectivity of social structures and in the subjectivity of objectively orchestrated mental structures, they present themselves to experience with the opacity and resistance of things’ (Bourdieu, 1996, 21).
In our final chapter we draw together our findings and discuss their policy implications, returning to the theoretical debates of our first chapter and evaluating them in the light of our findings. Throughout, we pay attention to the change and continuity in family practices since 1960 and the ways in which they are influenced by class, culture, gender and place. Notes 1 Thompson distinguishes four aspects: a hermeneutic aspect, which refers to the ‘background assumptions that are taken for granted … and transmitted inter-generationally’ (Thompson, 1996, 91); tradition has a normative dimension which refers to the beliefs and patterns of action which are passed on intergenerationally and ‘serve as a normative guide for actions and beliefs in the present’ (Thompson, 1996, 92); there is also the ‘legitimation aspect’ (Thompson, 1996, 92), which refers to the way in which tradition may legitimate the ‘exercise of power and authority’; and finally there is the ‘identity aspect of tradition’ (Thompson, 1996, 93).