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The real-time requirement also restricts the complexity of higher-level algorithms, such as motion estimation and rate control. 3, are speci ed for video frames. A video frame is divided into Groups of Blocks GOB made up of a number of macroblocks MB. 17, each macroblock is composed of four 8  8 luminance blocks and two 8  8 chrominance blocks, one each for the Cb and Cr color components. Integer-pel motion compensation is performed at the macroblock level; that is, there is one motion vector per macroblock.

24: Block diagram of a xed-delay CBR video transmission system. removes, decodes, and displays the earliest picture in the bu er. It should be stressed that the VBV is only a idealized decoder model and not a prescription of how to build a decoder or how an actual decoder would function. The VBV model, however, is useful in establishing rate constraints on encoded video such that the encoding would be decodable with speci ed bu ering requirements. The VBV has three prescribed modes of operation: a constant bit rate CBR mode and two variable bit rate VBR modes.

The training examples could be generated each time we encode a macroblock using motion compensation mode. However, we cannot possibly hope to train one model for each value of Q simply because there would not be enough training examples. We need a single model whose parameters are 50CHAPTER 3. MOTION ESTIMATION FOR LOW BIT-RATE VIDEO CODING independent of Q. The curve tting results from the pretraining trials show a strong correlation between the model parameters and Q,1. This agrees well with previous work on rate-quantization modeling 19 .

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