Download Fast Reactor Safety by John Graham (Eds.) PDF

By John Graham (Eds.)

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Example text

In a BWR, if the void transit time is comparable with fuel time constants, then the sequence of a power rise followed by temperature and void increase can multiply. It is an "oscillatory" instability with a time constant of a fraction of a second. (c) Xenon instability occurs in very large thermal cores because a flux increase in one area is not quenched quickly enough by neutrons diffusing to other areas. Without selective area control (derived as the result of instability studies), a "spatial" instability involving oscillations of successive xenon poisoning and poison destruction cycles would result.

The main uncertainties occur in not knowing the condition of the fuel or the fuel/cladding gap. Alternatively heat-transfer coefficients can be calculated from the steadystate temperature distributions for a given heat input [Eqs. 32)] if they are known from experimental measurements. 3 ELABORATION OF MODELS Before considering the enlargement of the thermal model to take account of further spatial effects, there is one term which complicates the solution of the present set of Eqs. 28). 1 The Term dTJdz The term dTJdz in Eq.

F) Use a higher core pressure to maintain a higher vapor density after voiding with a consequent slightly softer spectrum. (g) Increase the sodium inventory in the core to make the spectrum much softer initially. Then one can also use design to increase the leakage effect: (h) Use a pancake or modular core to increase the leakage. (i) Power flatten and decrease the core size and so increase the effect of leakage. This would not help at the center where the power is of course always flat. 239 233 However voiding effects are not necessarily all important; time effects may be more important in particular accidents and, of course, the avoidance of accidents in the first place, by providing a reliable system, is the primary objective of safety engineering.

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