By Margaret Boushel, Mary Fawcett, Julie Selwyn
Chapter 1 ancient perspectives of formative years (pages 7–20): Mary Fawcett
Chapter 2 Fetal improvement (pages 21–34): Julie Selwyn
Chapter three Infancy (pages 35–48): Julie Selwyn
Chapter four Early improvement: severe views (pages 49–64): Mary Fawcett
Chapter five Childrearing throughout Cultures (pages 65–77): Margaret Boushel
Chapter 6 Relationships (pages 78–92): John H.W. Barrett
Chapter 7 younger kid's Rights and wishes (pages 93–107): Margaret Boushel
Chapter eight Early adolescence Care and schooling providers in Britain (pages 108–123): Mary Fawcett
Chapter nine baby corporation and first education (pages 124–138): Andrew Pollard
Chapter 10 applied sciences and Environments: New Freedoms, New Constraints (pages 139–152): Julie Selwyn
Chapter eleven relations rigidity and relatives aid (pages 153–168): Margaret Boushel and Hilary Burgess
Chapter 12 the kid as Citizen (pages 169–183): Hilary Land
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Additional resources for Focus on Early Childhood: Principles and Realities
98 As noted by Scheper-Hughes and Sargent (1998a:13) “children’s voices are conspicuously absent in most ethnographic writing:”99 22 Introduction By and large, children appear in ethnographic texts the way cattle make their appearance in Evans-Pritchard’s classic, The Nuer – as forming an essential backdrop to everyday life, but mute and unable to teach us anything significant about society and culture. Because traditional social science views the child’s world as a defective version of the more important adult world into which she will eventually be socialized,100 studies of children’s lifeworlds have been largely neglected in anthropology.
In my own work, I have blended the methodologies of ethnographic description and analysis of talk-in-interaction in order to focus directly on children’s own social practices and also give voice to the children I studied. ”118 My approach seeks to understand the practices through which children organize and make sense out of their activities in specific contexts apart from the researcher’s interaction with children. My fieldwork among peer groups Over the past 35 years the central groups among which I have conducted extensive fieldwork include (a) African American working class children (studied from 1970–71) in their Philadelphia neighborhood, (b) two different groups of second generation Spanish/English Central American and Mexican girls in downtown Los Angeles (studied in 1993 and 1998) on the playground and in the classroom, and (c) a group of children of mixed ethnicities and social classes in a progressive southern California school (studied in the late-1990s).
I describe the major debates in current research in studies of children’s peer groups related to issues of 28 Introduction gender, language, and conflict. I investigate the shape of moves and embodied practices used to accomplish negotiation and take stances or alignments in such disputes. I look at how children across a range of different groups, including an ESL group that includes boys, orchestrate moves in the game of hopscotch. It is important to establish that disputes constitute taken-forgranted features of the social worlds of children in order to examine how aggressive actions differ in shape and in intent from everyday disputes with one’s friends.