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By K. Grodzińska, B. Adamczyk, A. Ćwikowa (auth.), Prof. Dr. Władysław Grodziński, Dr. January Weiner, Prof. Dr. Paul F. Maycock (eds.)

A variety of recognized forests were the item of reports via ecological groups. each ecologist understands the names of forests reminiscent of Whytham Woods in England (Elton 1966), Solling in West Germany (Ellenberg 1971), Hubbard Brook in New Hampshire, U. S. A. (Likens et al. 1977, Bormann and Likens 1979), and ladra6s in relevant Sweden (Persson 1980). The variety of such staff reports grew swiftly throughout the interval of the foreign organic Programme (Reichle 1981). every one of those forests represented features oflocal and normal curiosity. The Niepolomice wooded area in Southern Poland (Fig. 1) doesn't own any brilliant positive factors and it can be considered as a standard woodland of the lowlands of continental Europe. located within the Vistula River Valley, 20 km east of Cracow (50°07' N, 20°23' E) it comprises significant sections: an in depth pine wooded area of the Pino-Quercetum kind, and a smaller, deciduous, oak-hornbeam- Fig. 1. the site of the Niepolomice wooded area in Southern Poland VI Preface Tilio Carpinetum woodland. this massive forested zone (11,000 ha) owes its survival in a single of the main densely populated elements of Europe to an extended interval of defense as a royal looking flooring. The interval of royal safety ended suddenly on the flip of twentieth century below the devastating blows of 2 global wars via maybe an excellent higher risk, the results of recent advancements in heavy industry.

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Additional resources for Forest Ecosystems in Industrial Regions: Studies on the Cycling of Energy Nutrients and Pollutants in the Niepołomice Forest Southern Poland

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May-Dec. 79 Apr. 5. 93 Feb. Szarow Number of days with mean daily temperature Cc) After Mackiewicz (1954) Jan. 4. ,s: Po 0 ~ Q .... :;; The Niepolomice Forest: Existing Features 19 Atmospheric fronts occur here 42% days per year, especially in winter and summer. 2% . 2%, respectively). 5%). 9). 4 dc. 5 0C) is maintained (Fig. 8). Minimum and maximum temperatures and perhaps their amplitudes at ground level are crucial for herbaceous plants and small animals. As shown in Fig. 8, maximum temperatures are always higher in the southern part of the forest than in the northern, whereas minimum temperatures are almost the same at both stations, being a little lower in the south than in the north in the cool halfyear.

Of an emitter. This layer extende d from the ground surface to 80- 140 the atmoof ng soundi c acousti of results the by ed confirm is This observ ation on layers sphere in Cracow. These studies have confirm ed that the lowest inversi on inversi The 1980). during winter are situated at a level of 150 m (WaIczewski days. 4 Meteorological Aspects of Air Pollutant Spread in Forest Areas J. LEWINS KA only on The affect of industr ial air polluti on upon a given area depend s not thermo the on extent rable conside the emission of air polluta nts, but also to a in em ecosyst forest a by ced influen is dynamics of the local atmosp here, which accord ance with its size and the nature and spacing of trees.

As computed by Klein (1978), the thermal winter (T <0 0C) takes 86 days in the Niepolomice Forest area, early spring (T = 0 °-5 °C) 34 days, thermal spring (T = 50-10 °C) 27 days, early summer (T = 10°-15 °C) 31 days, thermal summer (T> 15 °C) 97 days, late summer (T= 10°_ 15 °C) and thermal autumn (T= 10°-5 °C) 36 days each, and the early winter (T=5°- 0 °C)only 18 days. Periods other than winter account for 279 days, the vegetation period lasts 227 days, the period of intense plant growth 164, and the maturation period 97 days.

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