By Akifumi Kuchiki, Masatsugu Tsuji (eds.)
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Labour shortage: The Malaysian government has worked, since the early 1990s, to develop the human resources necessary to nurture suppliers in the automobile industry, and the Japanese government has cooperated with these human resource development projects. Malaysian firms are not so positive to acquire technologies compared with China while Chinese firms acquire Japan’s technologies by them. It is said that in the past Japanese and Korean firms went through the same process of acquiring technology by imitating foreign technology that Chinese firms are now experiencing.
Production of Perodua cars grew steadily to 102,000 in 2004, recorded 116,000 in 2005, and was expected to be 134,000 in 2006. The production of Protons was 141,000 in 2004 and 139,000 in 2005, but fell to 102,000 in 2006. The market share of Perodua grew from 25 per cent in 2004 to 34 per cent in 2006, while that of Proton, which was more than 80 per cent at one point, gradually fell to about 24 per cent in 2006. The local contents ratio of Kancil and Myvi, both produced by Perodua, is about 80 per cent, while that of Perodua’s Rusa and Kembara models is about 50 per cent.
Wu (2007) analysed UILs in the context of national innovation systems and found that UILs are active exceptionally in Beijing. Three key institutional actors are industry, research organizations (universities/public research institutes: URIs) and government. UILs are built through two broad categories of mechanism. The first is technology transfer through licensing and other arrangements such as consulting, joint or contract R&D, and technical services. The second mechanism is through university enterprises.