By Graeme Smith, Roger Watson
Gastrointestinal nursing is an increasing forte with a gradual raise in either nurse-led prone and in expert nurse practitioners e.g. in inflammatory bowel affliction, stoma care, foodstuff, endoscopy and counselling.
This finished textual content lays the rules for care via reviewing the anatomy and body structure underlying universal stipulations prior to overlaying their medical positive aspects, factors, research and administration. Underlying this method are the categorical nursing facets of taking care of sufferers with gastrointestinal stipulations together with psychosocial components and matters equivalent to the dimension of healthiness similar caliber of existence.
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Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is the anti-anaemic substance or factor absorbed by the villi of the small intestine and stored in the liver. It is satisfactorily absorbed only in the presence of intrinsic factor produced by the cells in the lining of the stomach. Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper development of red cells in the red bone marrow and of nervous tissue. Folic acid is required in the body for the maturation of red blood cells. It is derived from green vegetables. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is water soluble and is found in citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruits and lemons), green vegetables and potatoes.
Correspondingly a lack of vitamin A causes visual loss, stunted growth and a lowered resistance to infection. Vitamin D is found in dairy produce and also in fatty ﬁsh such as herring. Cod liver oil and halibut liver oil are very rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D can also be built up in the body; the ultraviolet rays from the sun act on a fatty substance in the skin called ergosterol, which produces vitamin D. Vitamin D is necessary, with calcium, for the formation of bone. Lack of vitamin D and/ or calcium leads to rickets in childhood, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults.
Other peptides that inhibit gastric acid secretion are gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), released in response to fatty foodstuffs in the duodenum, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Control of pepsinogen secretion Pepsin is a co-factor in the acid-induced ulceration of the stomach and the duodenum. Its precursor, pepsinogen, is released from the chief cells in response to acetylcholine, as well as by a number of gastrointestinal hormones. 2 Summary of gastrointestinal peptides. Reproduced with permission from Hinchliff et al.