By Megan Griffiths; Rusheng Chew
The new sequence of Crash path maintains to supply readers with entire assurance of the MBBS curriculum in an easy-to-read, elementary demeanour. development at the good fortune of past variants, the hot Crash classes hold the preferred and detailed beneficial properties that so characterized the sooner volumes. All Crash classes were absolutely up-to-date all through.
- More than a hundred illustrations current scientific, diagnostic and functional details in an easy-to-follow manner
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- Contains a completely up to date self-assessment part - perfect for honing examination talents and self-testing
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- Online self-assessment financial institution additionally to be had - content material edited by means of Dan Horton-Szar!
Now celebrating over 10 years of good fortune - Crash path has been specifically devised that can assist you get via your assessments with ease.
Completely revised all through, the recent variation of Crash direction is completely adapted to satisfy your wishes by way of delivering every thing you want to recognize in a single position. truly awarded in a attempted and depended on, easy-to-use, structure, every one booklet within the sequence supplies whole assurance of the topic in a no-nonsense, straight forward fashion.
Commencing with 'Learning Objectives', each one bankruptcy courses you succinctly in the course of the subject, giving complete insurance of the curriculum when fending off pointless and sometimes complicated element. every one bankruptcy can be supported via a whole art programme, and lines the ever renowned 'Hints and suggestions' containers in addition to different necessary aide-mémoires. All volumes include an updated self-assessment part which lets you try your wisdom and hone your examination skills.
Authored by means of scholars or junior medical professionals - operating below shut school supervision - every one quantity has been ready through a person who has lately been within the examination scenario and so relates heavily for your wishes. So no matter if you want to get out of a repair or goal for contrast Crash Course is for you!!
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Additional resources for Gastrointestinal system
The physiological lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) protects the oesophagus from reflux of the acidic gastric contents. The anatomical pyloric sphincter controls the flow of gastric contents into the duodenum. The cardiac (gastro-oesophageal) orifice of the stomach lies behind the 7th left costal cartilage about 2–4 cm to the left of the median plane. The pylorus, which is the distal sphincteric region, has a variable location from L2–L4 vertebrae, but usually lies 1 cm to the right of the midline, in or below the transpyloric planes.
B12 absorption. Parietal cells are absent in achlorhydria (‘absence of acid’); thus, no intrinsic factor is produced in this condition, which if prolonged will cause vitamin B12 deficiency and a macrocytic anaemia. Their internal appearance changes when food has been eaten (Fig. 6) • Chief (zymogen) cells – These are found in the deepest part of gastric glands and are typical proteinsecreting cells. They secrete pepsinogen, the inactive precursor of pepsin (a proteolytic enzyme), which is converted to pepsin by acid.
Some undifferentiated stem cells are present in the neck region. Neuroendocrine (APUD) cells and parietal cells are scattered throughout, increasing in number nearer the junction with the body. The muscularis mucosae below the cardiac glands are thick and often interdigitate with the glands. Pyloric glands The pyloric glands are coiled (but less so than cardiac ones) and often branched, with the superficial zone being slightly thicker than the deep zone. They contain mainly mucous cells, but they have parietal, enteroendocrine and stem cells scattered throughout.