By Maurice Galton
Drawing at the paintings of Vygotsky, the authors examine the social and emotional merits young children can achieve from operating jointly. They use case reports derived from the ORACLE II workforce paintings venture at Leicester, and in addition take note of the advances made in collaborative staff paintings in different international locations. the result's a suite of instructions from which academics can plan guidelines appropriate for his or her personal colleges.
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Extra resources for Group Work in the Primary Classroom
These findings from the PRISMS study confirmed the teaching styles analysis carried out during the ORACLE Project. One of the ORACLE styles was called the Group Instructor because it highlighted the very same interactions displayed by teachers in the PRISMS study whenever they were involved with groups of children rather than individuals or the whole class. These ORACLE teachers, about 12 per cent of the sample, tended to emphasise factual and routine statements, compared with presentation of ideas but they also, by working through groups rather than with individuals, provided higher levels of feedback.
In the groups containing above-average pupils the mean proportion of instructional input was 15 Group work and task completion 27 per cent compared to 2 per cent in the low ability groups. Because the sample was only a very small one (six classrooms) further studies were carried out on the effect of group composition (Bennett and Cass 1989). Using the judgements of teachers to determine the attainment level of pupils within their class, nine groups of 11 and 12 year old children were studied while engaged on a computer assisted learning task involving historical sites and settlement patterns.
For the study itself a jig-saw arrangement, with peer tutoring, was used in the experimental groups to teach a topic on photosynthesis. The control group presented the same material but in a traditional classroom-laboratory setting in which the tutor presented the material to the students by means of lectures and demonstrations. Pupils were pre-tested on their knowledge of biology and then tested again at the end of the experiment on the topic of photosynthesis as well as on a more general test of science processes.