Download Immunological Aspects of Gastroenterology by R. N. Cunliffe, Y. R. Mahida (auth.), Y. R. Mahida (eds.) PDF

By R. N. Cunliffe, Y. R. Mahida (auth.), Y. R. Mahida (eds.)

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are universal. there's expanding appreciation of the significance of the immune procedure within the pathogenesis of a couple of those illnesses. This ebook covers simple points of innate and adaptive immunity within the gastrointestinal tract, oral tolerance, and mobile and molecular mechanisms of acute and persistent irritation. particular sickness coated contain bacterial infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) an infection, coeliac sickness, and inflammatory bowel illness. different subject matters comprise mucosal immunisation and intestinal transplantation immunology.
The readership of this ebook contains clinicians, scientists, and scholars attracted to the gastrointestinal tract.

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Extra resources for Immunological Aspects of Gastroenterology

Sample text

Coexpression ofLL-37 and IL-6 has been demonstrated in epithelial cells (119) 20 INTESTINAL MUCOSAL INNATE IMMUNITY and this may provide a mechanism whereby LL-37 is rapidly upregulated in response to microbial invasion of the epithelium. The antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesised LL-37 peptides has been extensively investigated, and it's microbicidal activity is probably due to membrane permeabilisation (121-123). LL-37 is active against a wide range of bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

This secretory enzyme has been found in Paneth cells of the small intestine, which are also known to express other antimicrobial molecules (29). Furthermore, secretion of PLA2-II from Paneth cells may be stimulated by intraluminal LPS (34). PLA2-II has also been demonstrated in lacrimal gland cells and tears, in chondrocytes and synovial fluid and also in inflammatory exudate cells. Recently PLA2-II has been isolated and purified from murine small intestinal Paneth cells and found to be active against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (29).

Luminal antigens and prevent their penetration of the epithelial cell layer (22) ('immune exclusion'), alternatively antigens already beneath the epithelial layer may be transported back into the lumen or neutralised intracellularly (23) bound to secretory IgA ('immune elimination'). The lamina propria T cells are mainly of the up TCR, CD4+ subset that have characteristics (CD45RO+ isotype, CD25 {IL2-receptor}) of activated memory cells. In contrast to systemic lymphocytes, they proliferate poorly in vitro to stimulation with purified antigens, or even to crosslinking of their surface CD3 molecules with antibody.

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