By Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Heinz-Gerhard Franck, Dr. Jürgen Walter Stadelhofer (auth.)
Aromatic natural hydrocarbons and heterocycles signify a bulk of approximately one 3rd of all mass-produced natural uncomplicated fabrics. fragrant compounds corresponding to benzene, phenol, naphthalene, anthracene, and their homologues, are derived from uncooked fabrics, coal, crude oil and biogenic assets via thermal and catalytic refining tactics. This booklet introduces the chemistry of aromatics with a short dialogue of the fragrant personality and a survey of old facets, really the improvement of the natural dye in the course of the nineteenth century. the most emphasis of the publication is to offer a transparent prospect of business tactics for the construction and the derivatisation of aromatics with constant move diagrams. low-priced elements of by way of- and side-products are particularly looked. For crucial aromatics an research of the foreign industry incorporated their derivatives: polymers, insecticides, dyes, pigments and medication. expert scientists, managers and scholars in chemistry and chemical engineering will discover a wealth of knowledge for his or her occupation and day-by-day work.
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Extra resources for Industrial Aromatic Chemistry: Raw Materials · Processes · Products
The level of crude phenol varies correspondingly between 3 and 10 kg per t of coal. As a result of the relatively low temperatures in the fixed-bed gasification process, which is generally carried out using the Lurgi method, the tar produced has a composition comparable to low-temperature carbonization tar, i. , the aromaticity is appreciably lower than that of high-temperature coal tar. 5 shows a comparison of the composition of fixed-bed gasification tar, produced by the Lurgi process, and a typical high-temperature coal tar.
At a reaction temperature of 400°C the deuterium content of the i-position remains, after a reaction time of 15 min, relatively constant at 66%. The 2-position, however, participates much less in the exchange reaction. tI. 0 --~t~:O ~~ ~ 4OO0C~··~ ~1. H H H H H H H" H HH H H'~'1 0 0 'Coal' H terium atoms of the aromatic ring, are hardly involved in the hydrogen exchange. Naphthalene-tis reacts likewise predominantly at the i-position. In interpreting the experiments with deuterium labelled solvents one has to have in mind, however, that smaller coal fragments are also in a position to participate in hydrogen exchange reactions (hydrogen shuttle).
Olefinic and aliphatic chemicals such as ethylene, propylene and methanol are therefore produced from crude oil fractions and suitable natural gas, whereas polynuclear aromatics such as naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene are recovered almost exclusively from coal-derived raw materials. Mononuclear aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene occupy a medial position, being obtainable from both crude oil and coal feedstocks. Renewable raw materials are, owing to their chemical structure, particularly suitable for the production of compounds containing oxygen.