By edited by Oliver Falck, Christian Gollier, and Ludger Woessmann
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Additional info for Industrial Policy for National Champions
Suppose that these policies have been so successful that just before opening up to trade, the home country has a faster growth rate than the foreign country: μ > μ* , but the reforms have been so recent that the home country is still behind the foreign country in all sectors. Then, after the opening up to trade, initially, all monopolies will reside in the foreign country; that is, all sectors will be in case C above. Now suppose furthermore that the discouragement effect is large enough that the home country does not innovate when behind (μC = 0).
Real per capita physical capital stock is then total real physical capital stock divided by total population. Each country’s growth rate in real per capita physical capital is then simply the log of its per capita physical capital in 2003 minus that in 1990, denoted Δ ln(k ). 3 times real per capita capital growth. We denote the TFP growth rate variable Δtfp . 3 Control Variables To control for other plausible factors affecting economic growth rates, we include additional control variables measured at the starting point of our growth window.
Also succession within a family may not be the radical change in control such as Shleifer and Vishny (1997b) envision as correcting governance problems (Bertrand and Schoar 2006). Rather, successive generations may grow increasingly entrenched, conservative, and resistant to innovative ideas (Pérez-González 2006; Morck and Yeung 2003, 2004; Morck, Wolfenzon, and Yeung 2005). If the business has no controlling shareholder in 1975 and again in 1996, we say control changes if the identity of the CEO (the top executive, regardless of actual title) changes.