By Liora Lukitz
The 1990-1991 situation within the center East and the disturbances that undefined, threw the deep-seated divisions in the Iraqi inhabitants into concentration. This e-book examines the complexities of the interior cultural, political and spiritual clash in the glossy country of Iraq.
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Extra resources for Iraq: The Search for National Identity
This authority was embodied in the preservation of Mar Sham’un’s temporal and spiritual authority. 13 On the other hand, the manifesto amounted to a retreat from a previously irrevocable position, namely the return to the Hakkari Mountains. However, the Iraqi authorities could not consider it as a compromise. They viewed the relinquishing of the Assyrians’ claim to the Hakkari Mountains mainly as a slackening of Assyrian pressure on the British and a way out of a deadlock created by Britain’s unfruitful attempts to annexe the area to Iraqi territory.
A secret accord between Feisal and the British then brought the impasse to an end, as the King promised that current information on issues of strategic importance to Britain, such as the oil fields, the railways and the port of Basra, would continue to flow to the British after independence. 31 THE 1930 TREATY The new treaty was signed on 30 June 1930. Nuri al Sa‘id was then Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Ja‘far al’Askari was Minister of Defence. This convenient composition of government, led by two exSherifian officers known as pro-British, coupled with the temporary 20 IRAQ: THE SEARCH FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY paralysis of the anti-British opposition because of personal rivalry between Yasin al Hashimi and Rashid ‘Ali al Gailani, led to the signing of the 1930 treaty.
The idea launched by US President Woodrow Wilson, that any selfdifferentiating people had the right to political autonomy, led to great confusion among the communities and to an increase of intercommunal tension. The confusion was further compounded by the intermingling of the concepts ‘nation’ and ‘state’. The peoples in the area could hardly internalize the fact that the term ‘state’ implied loyalty to and identification with an effective government and its institutions, whereas the term ‘nation’, encompassing a sense of cultural distinctiveness, did not necessarily imply any political substantiation.