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By Marcel Detienne

En 2007, une kingdom qui fait partie de l'Europe, comme tant d'autres, décide de créer un ministère de l'Identité nationale. Pour familières qu'elles paraissent, les notions d'identité et de country se révèlent d'une complexité qui éveille l. a. curiosité de l'histoire et de l'anthropologie. Aussi, conjuguant les deux disciplines, Marcel Detienne met en viewpoint quelques manières radicalement différentes de se représenter ce qui semble faire partie du sens commun, à savoir ce que nous sommes ensemble et ce que les autres ne sont pas. Ces manières sont autant de fictions du passé ou du présent : le pur Celte de Padanie, en Italie ; l'Hindou-hindouiste à racines védiques, dans l'Inde contemporaine ; le Japonais né de los angeles terre des dieux sans autres prédécesseurs ; l'Athénien qui se veut pur rejet de los angeles Terre autochtone ; l'Allemand historial d'hier, plus grec que les Grecs, du temps de Heidegger et de Hitler : le local, citoyen de souche américain sur un continent ouvert à l'immigration. Sans oublier le Français de souche, à nouveau raciné.

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In addition to Locke, writers answering to this description included Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), Thomas Reid (1710–1796), Joseph Butler (1692–1752), most of the literary circle around The Spectator, and even the Cambridge Platonists whom Edwards so admired. Edwards respected the achievement of these moralists and undertook to relate it to another great system of thought, Reformed theology. 53 Benjamin Franklin, Jonathan Edwards, and Human Nature Jonathan Edwards set out to show that the moral philosophy of his age did not really dictate an Arminian theology; it could be comprehended within a Calvinist system as well.

73 Social ethics was really too important to be left to the second-best devices of natural morality; Edwards insisted upon applying the standards of divine morality in his social thought. He demanded the transcendence of self-interest and the attainment of altruism, both of which only come through divine grace. Only a religious awakening, therefore, could redeem secular society. ’’74 The specification of the town is significant; practically all of Edwards’s own interest in what we would call politics was expressed at the town level.

He must be taught the principles of the art, be shown all the methods of working, and how to acquire the habits of using properly all the instruments. . My art of virtue has also its instruments and teaches the manner of using them. Faith in Christ works as the requisite instrument for some people, Franklin acknowledged, though not for all. His own program would benefit everyone, including those with weak faith or none. ’’37 But Benjamin Franklin, Jonathan Edwards, and Human Nature Franklin’s ‘‘art of virtue’’ was intended to operate naturally, not supernaturally, and to be suitable for all, not only the elect.

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