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By Brian Jenkins

The resilience of nationalism in modern Europe could appear paradoxical at a time while the country country is extensively obvious as being 'in decline'. The individuals of this e-book see the resurgence of nationalism as symptomatic of the hunt for id and which means within the complicated glossy global. Challenged from above by means of the supranational imperatives of globalism and from under by way of the complicated pluralism of recent societies, the state nation, within the absence of choices to marketplace consumerism, continues to be a spotlight for social identification. state and id in modern Europe takes an absolutely interdisciplinary and comparative method of the 'national question'. person chapters examine the specifics of nationwide identification in France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Iberia, Russia, the previous Yugoslavla and Poland, whereas taking a look additionally at exterior forces equivalent to financial globalisation, ecu supranationalism, and the top of the chilly warfare. atmosphere present concerns and conflicts of their huge ancient context, the ebook reaffirms that 'nations' should not 'natural' phenomena yet 'constructed' types of social id whose destiny may be decided within the social enviornment.

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Again like anti-Semitism the persecution of the Roma reached a chilling climax under national socialism. Nazism identified the Roma as ‘rootless parasites’ who threatened the purity of the New Order. Within occupied Europe the Nazis established a policy of extermination which led to the death of more than 250,000. The defeat of Nazism did not bring about an end to anti-Roma racism which continued to persist across the continent. However, the period since 1989 has seen a heightening of the phenomenon, especially among ethnic nationalist groups within eastern Europe.

From this perspective high discourse defined itself over and against what were seen as the vulgar practices of the populace, and here the imagery of the grotesque body was deployed to mark out the marginal, the low and the outside. Continually the popular classes were stigmatised as filthy, dirty and degenerate. Stallybrass and White then go on to outline how the symbolic categories of classical and grotesque characterised the great age of institutionalising during the nineteenth century with the establishment of asylums, prisons and mental hospitals.

Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism, op. 122. Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication, Boston, MA, MIT Press, 1966 and Anderson, op. 40ff. 61. Nairn, op. cit. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism, op. cit. 145. 153. 178. This statement, however, might need some modification; we suggest that it is nationalism, and not necessarily a state, that precedes nations. Hobsbawn, Nations and Nationalism, op. 163–83. It should be stressed that enemies are not merely ethnic groups but also other social groups threatening the nation by deviating from the project of promotion of the national good.

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