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By Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Steven E. Miller

Lots of the wars of the Nineties were complicated and bloody inner conflicts pushed to an important measure through nationalism and ethnic animosity. Dozens of wars--in Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, the previous Soviet Union, and elsewhere--have killed or displaced thousands of individuals. students and diplomats were pissed off of their makes an attempt to appreciate and regulate those wars. the 1st a part of Nationalism and Ethnic clash addresses the roots of nationalist and ethnic wars, focusing particularly at the conflicts within the former Yugoslavia, the previous Soviet Union, and Kashmir. the second one a part of the booklet, which explores innovations for fighting and resolving such conflicts, develops proposals for foreign motion starting from army intervention to partition to a reconsideration of the belief of the nation in Africa.

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But there is nothing natural about ethnic interest that requires it to be defined in a conflictual way. Sixth, the larger and more immediate the threat to the ruling elite, the more willing it is to take measures which, while preserving its position in the short term, may bring high costs in the longer term; in effect it discounts future costs. The intensity and thus costliness of a conflictual strategy depends on the degree of the threat to the old elites. These factors include, first, the time frame of the threat to power.

It thereby constructs the individual interest of the broader population in terms of the threat to the community defined in ethnic terms. Such a strategy is a response by ruling elites to shifts in the structure of domestic political and economic power: by constructing individual interest in terms of the threat to the group, endangered elites can fend off domestic challengers who seek to mobilize the population against the status quo, and can better position themselves to deal with future challenges.

38 For example, Croatia and Slovenia had multi-candidate party elections by 1986; Bosnia-Hercegovina held multi-candidate popular elections for state presidency representative. 39 Slavoljub Dukic*, "Trka za recenzentom," Borba, August 12, 1991, p. 11. 40 The second part of the conservatives' strategy was to shift attention toward ethnic issues. "42 The fact that the demonstrations took place without police interference was a sign that they were at least tolerated by the Belgrade party. 44 Journalists who were allied with Milosevic, especially at the daily newspaper Politika, undertook a media campaign to 40 Dukic*, "Strogo pov.

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