By J. Phil Gibson
From the tiniest microbe to the biggest whale, all organisms have replaced over monstrous expanses of time because of the forces of normal choice. This name provides an outline of the approaches and factors that force common choice and the rules that designate the way it operates, utilizing a variety of organisms as examples.
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It was thought that during mating, these gemmules migrated from every part of the body and simply combined to form the offspring. This simple and attractive hypothesis seemed to explain quite neatly why a red-flowered plant mated with a white-flowered plant produces pink flowers. 31 32 NAturAl SelectioN Unfortunately, it does not explain why, in some species, this mating produces not pink, but either red or white flowers. Nor does it explain why color that is absent in one generation may unexpectedly reappear in a later generation.
This simple and attractive hypothesis seemed to explain quite neatly why a red-flowered plant mated with a white-flowered plant produces pink flowers. 31 32 NAturAl SelectioN Unfortunately, it does not explain why, in some species, this mating produces not pink, but either red or white flowers. Nor does it explain why color that is absent in one generation may unexpectedly reappear in a later generation. The process of how traits are passed from parent to offspring would remain a scientific mystery until a young monk named Gregor Mendel solved the problem by growing peas in his monastery garden.
In 1848, naturalists were surprised to discover a completely black form of the moth. Within 40 years, these dark moths outnumbered their speckled brethren in certain locations, sometimes by as much as 90%. D. Kettlewell in 1955. He noticed that with the coming of the industrial revolution, soot from English factories accumulated on tree trunks, making their bark much darker than usual. Kettlewell predicted that the change in the color of the bark was related to the change in the color of the moths.