Download Nature’s Teachings: Human Invention Anticipated by Nature by John George Wood Wood PDF

By John George Wood Wood

Nature's Teachings, first released in 1877, used to be one of the books on usual historical past via J. G. wooden, a Victorian clergyman who was once highly influential in popularising the topic, in addition to being the editor of The Boy's personal journal. the following he examines the shut parallels among nature and human innovations in parts together with seafaring (the raft, paddle and oar), struggle and looking (barbs, poisons and projectiles), structure, instruments, optics and acoustics, in addition to 'useful arts' together with sewage disposal. His textual content comprises over 750 figures and illustrations, and he argues that destiny nice discoveries might be made because of cautious observations of nature. even if a modern of Darwin, wooden mostly neglected the evolution debates and interested by speaking his enthusiasm for the flora and fauna to a non-scientific viewers. His winning guides nonetheless make attention-grabbing analyzing for these attracted to Victorian tradition and the background of schooling.

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PRAWN" SWIMMING. FEET OF DUCK. SELF-FEATHERING PADDLE-WHEEL. to those of the paddle-wheel. When paddle-steamers were first invented, the blades were fixed and projected from the wheel, as if they had been continuations of its spokes. It was found, however, that a great waste of power, together with much inconvenience, was caused by this arrangement. Not SELF-FEATHERING PADDLE-WHEEL. 17 only was a considerable weight of water raised by each blade after it passed the middle of its stroke, but the steam power was given nearly as much to lifting and shaking the vessel as to propulsion.

Urged by a strong and experienced man, can be propelled with wonderful speed. The well-known " Tanka" boat-girls of China never think of using two oars, a single oar in the stern being all-sufficient for the rapid and intricate evolutions required in their business. The mechanical process which is here employed is nothing more than that of the inclined plane, or rather, the wedge, the oar-blade forming the wedge, and the force being directed against the stern of the boat, and so driving it through the water.

The mode of construction is perfectly simple. The labour is 30 NATURE'S TEACHINGS. divided between the sexes: the women cut large sheets of bark from the birch-trees, scrape and smooth them, and then sew them together, so as to form the outer skin, or " cloak " as it is called, of the canoe. Meanwhile the men are making the skeleton of strips of white cedar-wood, and binding them into shape with thongs made of the inner bark of the'same tree, just like the "bass " of our gardeners. The "cloak" is then gradually worked over the skeleton, sewn into its place, and the canoe is finished.

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