By Ronald B. Pegg
Meat has been taken care of for hundreds of years with rock salt as a method of protection. in spite of the fact that, just one century has handed because the German researchers, Polenske in 1891, Kisshalt in 1899, and Lehmann in 1899, came across that the lively part within the curing procedure was once nitrite. quickly after the function of nitrite as a meat curing agent used to be published, executive regulators positioned directions at the point of nitrite and nitrate accredited to be used in cured meat formulations. within the overdue Nineteen Sixties and early Seventies, the advance of the so-called ''nitrite problem'' surfaced as a result of detection of N-nitrosamines in processed meats. The was once in an uproar and the problem used to be of paramount curiosity to scientists and the general public. an important technical strengthen within the analytical process for N-nitrosamine detection was once accomplished whilst Thermo Electron of Waltham, Massachusetts brought the thermal power analyzer (TEA). This unit allowed the screening of a giant variety of samples for nitrosamine with just a minimal practise. The function of nitrite in revealing the specified and distinctive taste of cured items, probably through suppressing the formation of lipid oxidation items was once one other improvement in revealing different houses of nitrite. notably, the antimicrobial function of nitrite, including salt, had a massive impact at the acclaim for nitrite/nitrate in foodstuff renovation.
This publication presents a overview of the fascinating attributes which sodium nitrite confers to meat in the course of processing, in addition to drawbacks of nitrite utilization, i.e., the presence of N-nitrosoamines. moreover, ideas for the curing of meat with no using nitrite are awarded. An exam of a multicomponent nitrite-free curing process entailing the colour, style, and microbial security of the sort of process is given.
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Additional resources for Nitrite Curing of Meat: The N-Nitrosamine Problem and Nitrite Alternatives
6 and outlined more extensively in Table 3 . 1 . 450 500 550 600 650 Wavelength (mp) FIG. 5. ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF THE THREE MOST COMMON FORMS OF MYOGLOBIN IN FRESH MUSCLE TISSUE. THE SPECTRUM FOR OXYMYOGLOBIN IS TYPICAL OF ALL COORDINATE-COVALENT COMPLEXES OF HEME PIGMENTS (From Bandman 1987). \":\ N' \ H3C < \ HOOC CH3 COOH H20 02 OXYMYOGLOBIN (Mb02, bright red, Fe2+) MYOGLOBIN (Mb, purplish red, Fe2+) Reduction Oxidation Oxidation Oxygenation HN 4 J Protein $' HOOC \ COOH METMYOGLOBIN (metMb, brown, Fe3+) FIG.
The discussion of nitrite chemistry below has been restricted to its reaction in meat systems (Sebranek and Fox 1985; Skibsted 1992; Cornforth et al. 1998). Nitrite itself is not the main nitrosating species; it’s one of nitrite’s derivatives. Nitrite is the conjugate base of a weak acid, namely nitrous acid ( i . e . 36. HNO, H’ + NO,. (1) Because the pH of meat ( i . e . O% of the added nitrite. In meat, it’s believed that the principal reactive species is the anhydride of HNO,, dinitrogen trioxide, N203.
1998) strengthened the mechanism posed by Killday et al. (1988). Cornforth and co-workers examined the relative contribution of CO and NO, towards pink ring formation in gas oven cooked beef roasts and turkey rolls. 5 ppm of NO, was sufficient to cause pinking of the turkey and beef products, respectively. Cornforth et al. (1998) proposed that pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO,, which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at the surface of meats.