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By G P Zhigal'skii; Brian K Jones

content material: Conduction in Discontinuous movies. Size-effects in skinny steel movies. inner Mechanical Stresses and Voids in skinny steel movies. electric Noise in skinny movies and Thin-Film constructions. Non-linear Conduction and Non-Equilibrium Noise in skinny motion pictures. Degradation Mechanisms in skinny steel Films.

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The evaporation temperature The composition of the particles in a vapour (monoatomic or polyatomic molecules) depends on the evaporation temperature. The composition of the vapour and the energy of the atoms hitting the substrate influence the formation of the amorphous or crystalline microstructure of the film. The condensation rate The condensation rate influences the size of the grains and the number of the residual gas molecules introduced into the film. With a higher condensation rate, wc , metal films are formed with a small-grained structure and with a low concentration of impurities.

Microelectronic Materials, Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1989. , ‘‘Theorie der Absorption und verwandter Erscheinungen’’, Z. Physik, 26 (1924) 117. S. and Vanselow, R. (eds), CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974. N. , ‘‘To a question about critical temperature of reflection of molecules’’, Z. Physik, 25 (1924) 287. , ‘‘The evaporation, condensation and reflection of molecules and the mechanism of adsorbtion’’, Phys. , 8 (1916) 149. A. , ‘‘Influence of argon on some properties of thin aluminium films’’, Physics of Semiconductors and Microelectronics, Ryazan’ (in Russian), RRTI Publ.

8]. P. K. Jones 18 Factors that determine the properties of films The process involves the firing of thermal beams of gallium and arsenic on to a heated substrate under ultra high vacuum conditions; pressures of less than 10À8 Pa. 5–5:0 mm hrÀ1 , enable precise stoichiometric composition and thickness control and better surface morphology than either vapour phase epitaxy or liquid phase epitaxy. In making the layers of the compound semiconductor GaAs the source of arsenic is contained in a heated crucible and the source of gallium is liquid gallium in another heated crucible.

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